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This has led to widespread use of group chats, channels, and similar functionality in messaging applications. Many of the most popular messaging applications support group chats, but the levels of encryption and privacy provided to users in these group chats is often unclear. Groul chats in applications such as Telegram and Facebook Messenger only support transport encryption, rather than end-to-end encryption.


This has led to widespread use of group chats, channels, and similar group chats in messaging applications. Many of the most popular messaging applications support group chats, but the levels of encryption and privacy provided to users in these group chats is often unclear. Group chats in applications such as Telegram and Facebook Messenger only support transport encryption, rather than end-to-end encryption.

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Even those applications which do support end-to-end encryption in group chats e. al and WhatsApp still use central servers to store and disseminate messages. There are two key areas to focus on when considering the deployment of encrypted group chats in Session.

The choice of method can have a ificant impact on the scalability of the group chat. Group chats client-side fanout, the client individually pushes their message to each recipient device or swarm. Client-side fanout is preferable in some cases since it can be done in peer-to-peer networks and does not require the establishment of a central server.

However, client-side fanout can prove burdensome on groul bandwidth and CPU usage as the of group members increase — a factor which proves particularly problematic for mobile devices. Figure 1: Client sends message using client-side fanout.

In server-side fanout, the client typically sends their message to a server, from which the message rgoup pushed out to each of the other clients the other clients may also fetch the message from the server at a later point in timewhich is more dhats for larger groups. The most naive solution to building group chats in Group chats would be to simply leverage the existing pairwise sessions we can create for one-on-one conversations.

To send a message to a group chat, a pairwise session would be started group chats every member of the group, and each message would be individually encrypted for each participant. This provides the group chat with the same guarantees possessed by standard pairwise communications using the al protocol: perfect forward secrecy and deniable authentication.

However, this would come at the cost of requiring the payload to be encrypted and stored N times, where N is the of members in the group.

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This process could become burdensome for low-powered clients participating in large group chats. One way to improve group chats is to adopt the "Sender Keys" system used by WhatsApp. This system involves a set of keys a Chain Key and a ature Key that each client generates for each of its groups. These Sender Keys are shared between all gruop members in a traditional pairwise manner using the al protocol. Chata a client needs to send a message to the group, it derives a message encryption key using its Chain Key and encrypts the message only once.

Participate in group chats

In Session, this would allow only having to generate proof of work exactly once per message, irrespective of the of members in a group. The same ciphertext can then be decrypted by all other group dhats, as they can generate the same message key from the senders' chain key. Note that all group chats keys can be generated this way by all group members, so no further sharing of keys is necessary.

However, all Sender Keys in the group will need to be updated whenever a group member leaves or is kicked from the group to ensure that they won't be able to read future messages. The Sender Keys scheme is effective in small- to medium-sized group chats where the membership set changes infrequently. However, it can be impractical in larger groups, where users frequently leave or are kicked from groul chat as all Sender Keys must be updated and redistributed in each such event.

However, the reality of large groups is that as more members are added to dhats group, it becomes increasingly likely that members will leak or otherwise share the contents of the conversation. Identifying and removing a malicious or compromised group member in a very large group is difficult, and thus, perfect forward secrecy and deniability would be violated in such group chats, unless malicious users could be identified and removed.

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In a case where many group chats members are offline at the same time, the sender must calculate many such proofs of work before their message can be delivered to all members of the chat, this quickly becomes taxing on mobile devices. The user's client sends a control message through a pairwise channel to the selected users. This control message communicates the group name, group members, group avatar, and other relevant data about the group.

If the group chat includes users who have not ly communicated with each other, sessions are established between these users in the background. Using these pairwise channels, the group derives shared ephemeral encryption and ing keys.

This ensures messages only need to be encrypted once for the entire group, as per the Sender Keys scheme detailed above. Instead of communicating these chwts messages to each user in the group individually, the group chooses a random swarm to store non-pairwise messages.

Group chats

This ensures messages are only stored on a single swarm, regardless of group size. Onion requests are used for transmitting messages to and from the shared swarm, and also used any time pairwise communication is required. All users added to the group have rights to add new members, but users can only be kicked from group chats group by the administrator.

This information is shared through pairwise channels when the group is created, and sent via a pairwise channel to new members when they the group. Additionally, as ly addressed, the usefulness grohp end-to-end encryption in very large groups is unclear, since a single malicious group member or compromised device is catastrophic to group privacy, and in large groups this is extremely difficult to protect against, regardless of the degree of encryption deployed.

Using group chats

In Session, once group membership reaches the upper bound for goup groups, the administrator is encouraged to convert the group into an open group. To balance the risk of such attacks, Session's open groups do not use the Service Node architecture.

Open groups instead require group administrators to operate their own server, or arrange for a channel to be created on an existing open group server host. The software required to do this is open-source, and a reference implementation is provided. All group chats and attachments stored on open group servers are fetched and posted through onion requests using the IP address or domain name of the open group host server, preserving network-layer anonymity for participants.

The open group server operator is the original administrator, and they are able to add new administrators.

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All administrators have the right to delete messages from the server. ing rights to open groups falls into one of two : whitelist-based groups and blacklist-based groups. Whitelist-based groups require group chats groyp public key to be preapproved added to the whitelist by an administrator, and users must be invited before being able to the open group.

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